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China’s bee industry

To measure the development degree of an industry, we can recognize from two aspects: one is the level of mechanization, the other is the grade of products. From this Angle, the development level of Chinese bee industry is not optimistic. Nowadays with the rapid development of science and technology and economy in our country, it is both necessary and feasible to improve the mechanization level of bees rapidly.

The current situation of beekeeping production in our country is eager for machinery
Our beekeeping technology is based on completely manual operation with simple tools and no machinery. This mode of production brings a series of problems for the development of beekeeping.

1. Beekeeping technology is generally backward
The shortage of mechanization limits the scale level of apiary. Beekeepers strive to obtain more bee products in a limited colony through heavy physical and mental labor, resulting in the decline of the health of the colony, poor quality of bee products, low economic benefits and instability. Some in the industry are blindly proud of the technology that allows us to extract excess product from a few colonies, and continue to pursue technology that allows us to further increase the yield of individual colonies.

(1) Small scale and poor efficiency: The average number of raising bees in our country has increased in recent years, and the average scale of professional apiaries raises 80 to 100 groups. However, the gap is still very large compared with the developed countries, such as the United States, Canada and other developed countries, the largest per capita number of two people raising 30,000 herds. Most apiaries in our country are overloaded labor input and hard working and living environment, annual income of 50,000 to 100,000 yuan, and income is unstable, often face the risk of loss.

(2) Serious disease: Due to the limitation of the scale of beekeeping, the investment of apiary in bee colonies will decrease as much as possible, and the acquisition of bee colonies will increase as much as possible. As a result, the overall health of bee colonies is low, and the bee colonies are prone to disease. Most farmers rely solely on drugs to address bee diseases, increasing the risk of drug residues in bee products.

2. Low level of mechanization
The development level of the mechanization of beekeeping in our country is very low, and it doesn’t harmonize with the development level of economy, science and technology and machinery manufacturing in our country. In recent years, some wise people in the industry began to realize this problem, and made hard efforts in strengthening the mechanization of beekeeping.

In the early 1980s, when the motherland put forward the “Four modernizations”, the older generation of beekeepers put forward the slogan of mechanization of beekeeping, and carried out mechanization exploration in the aspects of special vehicles for beekeeping. The mechanization level of most apiary field in our country has not yet been raised, and still remains in “cold weapons” age such as scraper, apiary brush, smoke blower, honey cutter, honey rocker, etc.

Apiculture, as an industry in the field of agriculture, has a large gap between its mechanized development level and that of planting and breeding. From 30 to 40 years ago, large-scale agriculture and mechanization level of farming in our country is very low, mainly labor-intensive production. Now the mechanization level of planting in the main agricultural areas has developed quite well. The scale and mechanization of animal husbandry has also developed by leaps and bounds. Before the 1980s, farmers raised pigs, cows, chickens, ducks and other livestock and poultry as a sideline in the single digits, but now its scale mechanization development level has far exceeded that of the bee industry.

Development trend of the mechanization of beekeeping in our country
Whether comparing with overseas developed beekeeping or domestic developed beekeeping industry, large-scale and mechanization of beekeeping in our country is imperative.

1. Mechanization of beekeeping is the need of the development of the bee industry
Scale is the basis of apiculture development and mechanization is the guarantee of scale of apiculture.
(1) The need for technological progress in the large-scale breeding of bees: scale is a typical feature of modern mass production, and low-benefit industries without scale are doomed to decline. The large-scale feeding technology of Chinese bees has made great progress in our country and the large-scale feeding technology of Chinese bees has been listed in the main plan of the Ministry of Agriculture in 2017. However, this technological advance is based on simplified operation technology. The continuous progress of bee large-scale feeding technology needs to rely on mechanization, which has become the bottleneck of bee large-scale feeding development at present.

(2) Reduce labor intensity: Special plan of mechanization in February 2018 hot spot focus on China’s apiculture 25 degree low, resulting in beekeeping has become a hard and low income industry, beekeepers with the growth of age, physical strength can no longer afford beekeeping; Developments in other industries are attracting young workers and leaving apiculture with few successors, proving that mechanization is the only way forward.

(3) It is beneficial to improve the quality of honey: the improvement of mechanization level is helpful to expand the scale of bee breeding and reduce the pressure of beekeepers’ one-sided pursuit of single crop yield. Under the premise of guaranteeing the total yield of bee farm, it is expected to solve the problems of low maturity of honey, honey ferment deterioration, mechanical concentration on the influence of color and flavor. Reducing overuse of bees helps to improve the health of bees, thereby reducing the use of bee drugs and reducing the risk of residue in bee products.

2. Beekeeping mechanization has begun
In our country, the author has begun to realize the importance and necessity of the mechanization of beekeeping. Both civil and government have given some attention to the mechanization of beekeeping. The development of economy, science and technology also lay a foundation for the mechanization of beekeeping.

Some private beekeepers took the lead in mechanized exploration. At least 8 years ago, the general freight cars were converted into special vehicles to carry bees. The hive doors on both sides of the vehicle are discharged outwards. After arriving at the site of placing bees, the bee colonies on both sides do not need to be unloaded. After the hive in the middle is unloaded, the management channel of the bee colony is formed. Large-scale bee farms in Xinjiang self-modified electric bee blowers 10 years ago to achieve mechanical removal of bees in honey extraction operations. Diesel generators are loaded on small transport vehicles to provide power for electric bee blowers in field honey extraction operations.

Pushed by Song Xinfang, a deputy to the National People’s Congress, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Finance introduced preferential policies such as subsidies for bees and machines. Shandong, Zhejiang and other provinces have also formulated some measures to promote the mechanization of apiculture. Automobile manufacturers are also active in the design and modification of beekeeping special vehicles, this modification is a major innovation, to provide security guarantee for beekeeping production, beekeeping special vehicles into legal products. The development of Chinese economy, science and technology and industrialization has provided the premise for the rapid growth of manufacturing industry, which makes the research and development of beekeeping machinery relatively easy. Some beekeeping mechanized equipment can use existing products, such as forklift; Some can be slightly modified for beekeeping production, such as trucks with boom; Some can refer to the mechanical principle design of beekeeping special equipment.

In recent years, the mechanized production of royal jelly has made great progress. The insect-free pulping device, various types of insect-moving machine and pulping machine have made great progress. The equipment and technology of mechanized production of royal jelly are becoming more and more mature. It is necessary to remind the industry that the production of royal jelly in our country is leading in the world because the production of royal jelly needs superb skills and human support. Developed countries do not get involved in labor-intensive industries, and backward countries are not easy to master sophisticated and detailed pulp production technology. When the mechanization production technology of royal jelly is mature, the production scale of royal jelly will be greatly increased in the countries that demand royal jelly. Labor-intensive countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America are also likely to produce royal jelly and seize the international market. We need to think ahead and plan ahead.

The idea of our country’s beekeeping mechanization development.
The mechanization of beekeeping has just started in China, and there will be many difficulties and problems in the future. It is necessary to clarify various constraints, find ways to break through the development bottleneck, and continue to promote the mechanization of beekeeping.

1. Relationship between beekeeping mechanization and beekeeping scale
Beekeeping mechanization and beekeeping scale development. The demand for beekeeping mechanization comes from the scale of beekeeping, where beekeeping machinery is not useful in small apiaries. The mechanization level of beekeeping often determines the scale degree of beekeeping, and the scale level of beekeeping determines the demand degree of mechanization. The development of beekeeping mechanization can improve the scale level of beekeeping. The increase in the scale level of beekeeping has increased the need for higher mechanization, thus promoting the research and development of beekeeping machinery. The two also restrict each other, larger than the scale of beekeeping demand can not be supported by the market; Without a higher level of mechanical support, the scale of bee farming will also be limited.

2. Improve the large-scale breeding technology of bees
To improve the mechanization level of beekeeping, it is necessary to continuously improve the scale level of beekeeping. With the development of large-scale feeding, large-scale beekeeping machinery is gradually developed from small beekeeping machinery. Currently, the large-scale level of beekeeping and mechanization level of beekeeping in our country is very low. Therefore, we should start from improving tools and developing small machinery to push forward the development of the mechanization of beekeeping and lead the correct development direction of mechanization.

3. Feeding technology should be adapted to the development of mechanization
The application of the new machinery will certainly affect the management mode and technical mode of bees, or it will not give full play to the role of the new machinery. The application of each new machine should adjust the management mode and technical mode of bees in time to promote the sustainable progress of beekeeping technology.

4. Mechanization of beekeeping should promote the specialization of beekeeping production
Specialization is an inevitable trend of industrial development. Mechanization of beekeeping should promote and lead the specialization of beekeeping. Specialized beekeeping production using limited resources and energy, research and development of special production machinery, master a product production technology, so as to improve production efficiency, such as honey series production machinery, royal jelly series production machinery, bee pollen series production machinery, queen cultivation series special machinery, cage bee production series special machinery.

Post time: Apr-10-2023